Wednesday, December 10, 2008
Q: When did the first Native Americans arrive in America?
A: Most say that Native Americans were always there. Most scientific evidence suggests that Indian ancestors came from Asia in prehistoric times, either by foot, over a land bridge, or by using ancient boats. This would have happened more than 20,000 years ago.
Q: Where did the Native Americans come from?
Nobody knows for sure, but most people think they come from Asia.
Q: How many Native Americans are there today?
A: Today, there are about 2 million Native Americans.
Q: Where do Native Americans live today?
A: Most still live in North America (Canada and the United States)
Q: Where did African Americans come from?
A: They came from Africa.
Q: Where do African Americans live?
A: African Americans are all around the world, Africa and America probably have the most Africans.
Q: When and where did the African Americans first arrive in America?
A: Around 1619 in Jamestown.
Q: When did the first Japanese Americans arrive in America?
A: About 1959.
Q: Where do Japanese Americans live?
A: Most live in Japan, but some live in America.
Q: Where did Japanese Americans come from?
Tuesday, December 9, 2008
Born: 1874 Died: 1954
Born in Danbury, Connecticut on 20 October 1874, Charles Ives pursued what is perhaps one of the most extraordinary and paradoxical careers in American music history. Businessman by day and composer by night, Ives's vast output has gradually brought him recognition as the most original and significant American composer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Inspired by transcendentalist philosophy, Ives sought a highly personalized musical expression through the most innovative and radical technical means possible. A fascination with bi-tonal forms, polyrhythms, and quotation was nurtured by his father who Ives would later acknowledge as the primary creative influence on his musical style. Studies at Yale with Horatio Parker guided an expert control overlarge-scale forms.
Ironically, much of Ives's work would not be heard until his virtual retirement from music and business in 1930 due to severe health problems. The conductor Nicolas Slonimsky, music critic Henry Bellamann, pianist John Kirkpatrick (who performed the Concord Sonata at its triumphant premiere in New York in 1939), and the composer Lou Harrison (who conducted the premiere of the Symphony No. 3) played a key role in introducing Ives's music to a wider audience. Henry Cowell was perhaps the most significant figure in fostering public and critical attention for Ives's music, publishing several of the composer's works in his New Music Quarterly.
In 1947, Ives was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his Symphony No. 3, according him a much deserved modicum of international renown. Soon after, his works were taken up and championed by such leading conductors as Leonard Bernstein and, at his death in 1954, he had witnessed a rise from obscurity to a position of unsurpassed eminence among the world's leading performers and musical institutions.List of Works:
* Symphony No. 1 (1901)
* Symphony No. 2 (1902, revised 1910)
* Symphony No. 3: The Camp Meeting (1901, rev. 1911)
* Symphony No. 4 (1916)
* A Symphony: New England Holidays (1919)
* Universe Symphony (1928, unfinished)
* Orchestral Set No. 1: Three Places in New England (1912–16, revised 1929)
* Orchestral Set No. 2 (1909–19)
* Orchestral Set No. 3 (1919–26; notes added after 1934)
For chamber orchestra
* Set No. 1 (1912); includes Calcium Light Night
* Set No. 2 (1912); includes "Gyp the Blood" or Hearst—Which is Worst!? (inc.)
* Set No. 3 (1917)
* Set No. 4: Three Poets and Human Nature (1925-30?)
* Set No. 5: The Other Side of Pioneering, or Side Lights on American Enterprise (1925-30?)
* Set No. 6: From the Side Hill (1925-30?)
* Set No. 7: Water Colors (1925-30?)
* Set No. 8: Songs without Voices (1930?); derived from Set No. 5
* Set No. 9 of Three Pieces (1934)
* Set No. 10 of Three Pieces (1934) [There are also two more chamber sets assembled in 1934 that are found listed in the same Work-List of Compositions.]
* Set for Theatre Orchestra (1915)
* Alcott Overture (1904, mostly lost)
* Emerson Overture for Piano and Orchestra or Emerson Concerto (1911–12, incomplete)
* Matthew Arnold Overture (1912, inc.)
* Overture and March: 1776 (1904, rev. 1910)
* Overture in G Minor (1899, inc.)
* Overture: Nationals (1915, mostly lost)
* Robert Browning Overture (1914, rev. 1942)
* Holiday Quickstep (1887)
* March No. 2, with Son of a Gambolier (1895?)
* March No. 3 in F and C (1893?, inc.)
* March No. 3, with My Old Kentucky Home (1895?)
* March No. 4 in F and C (1894?, inc.)
* The Circus Band (1898)
* Central Park in the Dark (1906, rev. 1936)
* Chromâtimelôdtune (1923?)
* Country Band March (1905?, rev. 1914, inc.)
* The General Slocum (1910?, inc.)
* The Gong on the Hook and Ladder (1934)
* Piece for Small Orchestra and Organ (1905?, mostly lost)
* The Pond (1906, rev. 1913)
* Postlude in F (1899?)
* Three Ragtime Dances (1911, mostly lost)
* Four Ragtime Dances (?)
* Nine Ragtime Pieces (1902?, mostly lost)
* The Rainbow (1914)
* Skit for Danbury Fair (1909, inc.)
* Take-Off No. 7: Mike Donlin-Johnny Evers (1907, inc.)
* Take-Off No. 8: Willy Keeler at Bat (1907, inc.)
* Tone Roads et al. (1915?)
* The Unanswered Question (1908, rev. 1935)
* Yale-Princeton Football Game (1899, inc.)
* Fantasia on Jerusalem the Golden (1888)
* March in F and C, with Omega Lambda Chi (1896)
* March Intercollegiate, with Annie Lisle (1892)
* Runaway Horse on Main Street (1908, mostly lost)
* Schoolboy March in D and F, Op. 1 (1886, mostly lost)
* String Quartet No. 1: From the Salvation Army (1900)
* String Quartet No. 2 (1913)
* Pre-First Sonata for Violin and Piano (1913)
* Violin Sonata No. 1 (1917?)
* Violin Sonata No. 2 (1917?)
* Violin Sonata No. 3 (1914?)
* Violin Sonata No. 4: Children's Day at the Camp Meeting (1916)
* Decoration Day (1919)
* From the Steeples and the Mountains (1901)
* Fugue in B-flat (1895?, inc.)
* Fugue in D (1895?, mostly lost)
* Fugue in Four Greek Modes (1897, inc.)
* Fugue in Four Keys on The Shining Shore (1903?, inc.)
* Hallowe'en (1914)
* In Re Con Moto et al. (1916)
* Largo for Violin and Piano (1901)
* Largo for Violin, Clarinet, and Piano (1934? arrangement of Largo for violin and piano)
* Largo Risoluto No. 1 (1909)
* Largo Risoluto No. 2 (1910)
* An Old Song Deranged (1903)
* Piece in G for String Quartet (1891?)
* Polonaise (1887, inc.)
* Practice for String Quartet in Holding Your Own! (1903)
* Prelude on Eventide (1908)
* Scherzo: All the Way Around and Back (1908)
* Scherzo: Over the Pavements (1910)
* Scherzo for String Quartet (1904)
* A Set of Three Short Pieces (1935?)
* Take-Off No. 3: Rube Trying to Walk 2 to 3!! (1909)
* Trio for Violin, Violoncello, and Piano (1907, rev. 1915)
* Variations on "America", for organ (1891) (arranged for orchestra by William Schuman and also arranged for piano solo by Lowell Liebermann)
* Piano Sonata No. 1
* Piano Sonata No. 2 Concord
Songs that were orchestrated
* General William Booth Enters into Heaven (based on a poem by the same name written by Vachel Lindsay)
* Psalm 14 (1902, 1912-13)
* Psalm 24 (1901, 1912-13)
* Psalm 25 (1901, 1912-13)
* Psalm 42 (1891-92)
* Psalm 54 (1902)
* Psalm 67 (1898-99)
* Psalm 90 (1923-24)
* Psalm 100 (1902)
* Psalm 135 (1902, 1912-13)
* Psalm 150 (1898-99)
Wikipedia- List of Compositions by Charles Ives
Saturday, December 6, 2008
Above are all examples of Renaissance art.
Q: What is Renaissance?
A: Renaissance is a period that started at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world.
Q: What does the word Renaissance mean?
A: The word Renaissance means "rebirth".
Q: What are some famous artists from this era?
A: Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Bellini, Raphael, along with many more artists.
Q: How long did Renaissance last?
A: It lasted from the 14th century to the 17th century.
Q: What's probably the most valued painting made in the time of Renaissance?
A: I'd say that The Mona Lisa (painted by Leonardo Da Vinci) is most valued.
On the left is the normal Mona Lisa...But on the right, it shows the digitally restored one! After centuries, most of the color must've faded. (And I always thought that Mona Lisa was painted like the one on the left!)
Friday, December 5, 2008
Wednesday, December 3, 2008
No matter how far archaeological finds go, there is evidence that cheese came into being in prehistoric times. Cheese can not really be said to have been
"invented". This delicious food must have resulted from the simple observation that milk left in a container ends up by coagulating, even more if it is hot.
People living in areas where the climate changed seasonally would also have noticed the effect of temperature on this process: in warmer weather the milk
would curdle faster than in the cold. This might be considered the first technological cheesemaking discovery.
There are hundreds of different types of cheese that can be differentiated both by the type of milk - raw, skimmed or pasteurised, and by the animal's milk -
cow, goat, sheep, buffalo, horse or camel.
KINDS OF CHEESE
Soft white cheeses
This is the simplest type of cheese. They are neither fermented nor matured. Their high moisture content, coupled with the high humidity, attracts and
encourages the growth of the classic white penicillium mould. This type of cheese is creamy and smooth. They are based on cow's milk, skimmed or
unskimmed, and sometimes enriched with cream.
These cheeses are neither pressed nor cooked. They are salted and seeded with Penicillium candidum that gives them their bloom (the white down that
takes on a golden aspect as it ages.)
The curd, which may or may not be cut depending on how soft the final cheese should be, is scooped into moulds and left to drain. The high moisture of the
curd and the humidity of the maturing rooms attract a bitter-tasting, grey, hairy mould called "cat fur". They are raw or pasteurised milk cheeses that come
from the north of France, the east of Belgium, Luxembourg and the western marches of Germany. The maturation period lasts from two to six months, then
the cheeses are washed in slightly salted brine. These cheeses are rather spicy and outrageously piquant in taste and aroma. They can smell yeasty or
Pressed, uncooked cheeses
For this type of cheese the raw or pasteurised milk is heated to 36 C and coagulated at a slightly lower temperature. The curds are fragmented into tiny
particles the size of rice grains and pressed through cloths to extract the whey. The maturation takes two to three months. The rind is brushed to obtain a
regular patina and prevent patches of humidity.
Pressed, cooked cheeses
Hard, pressed, cooked cheeses are virtually identical to the semi-hard, pressed, cooked cheeses. These cheeses are made using the evening's milk, left to
stand overnight and skimmed, mixed with that of the next morning. Maturation takes place in a cool, humid cellar, and lasts four to ten months, during
which the cheese is washed in a low-salt brine and scraped.
The blue mould is a strain of penicillium that is added to the milk before the rennet is added either in liquid or powder form. Most blue cheeses are normally
wrapped in foil to prevent them from drying out. They are neither pressed nor cooked. They are usually made from cow's milk.
These are mainly goat's and sheep's cheeses. When young, they have a slightly wrinkled, cream-coloured rind. In time they dry out, the wrinkles become
more pronounced and the character and flavour increases, along with the growth of bluish grey mould. Their taste is fresh, almost fruity, with undertones of
goat. To mature, these cheeses must be kept dry.
These are the result of melting one or more pressed, cooked or uncooked cheeses, and adding milk, cream, butter and sometimes flavouring agents. One or
several ripened cheeses are heated and mixed, then pasteurised at high temperature (130-140 C) after other dairy products, such as liquid or powdered milk,
cream, butter, casein, whey, and seasoning, have been added.
* Did you know that there are over 2,000 varieties of cheeses! Sureeee Enough! This information is heaven for us cheese lovers.
* Did you know the #1 cheese recipe in America is "Macaroni and Cheese"
* Did you also know that "Macaroni and Cheese" is on the Top 10 list of childrens favorite foods? Well it surrre isssss! It's everybody's childhood favorite and
its been served since the late 1700's.
* CHEESE HOLES: The most recognizable characteristic of Swiss cheese is its holes which punctuate the pale yellow exterior. These holes, also called
"eyes," are caused by the expansion of gas within the cheese curd during the ripening period.
* MOLD: Mold may develop on the surface of cheese. Although most molds are harmless, to be safe, cut away 1/2 inch of cheese on all sides of the visible
mold. Use remaining cheese as quickly as possible.
* Did you know that what appears to be the remains of cheese has been found in Egyptian tombs over 4,000 years old!
* Cheese was popular in ancient Greece and Rome, but fresh milk and butter were not. This was probably due to the fact that olive oil was available in the
Mediterranean area, where the climate would have spoiled milk and butter quickly.
* The terms "Big Wheel" and "Big Cheese" originally referred to those who were wealthy enough to purchase a whole wheel of cheese.
* Cheese takes up about 1/10 the volume of the milk it was made from.
* Greek historian Xenophon (430?-355? B.C.) mentions that goat cheese had been known for centuries in Peloponnesus.
* The first cheese factory to make cheese from scratch was started in Rome, New York in 1851 by Jesse Williams. He had his own dairy herd and purchased
more milk from other local farmers to make his cheese. By combining the milk and making large cheeses he could produce cheese with uniform taste and
texture. Before then, companies would buy small batches of home made cheese curd from local farmers to make into cheese, each batch of curds producing
cheese with wide differences in taste and texture from one another.
* Cheddar, Cheshire and Leicester cheeses have been colored with annatto seed for over 200 years. Carrot juice and marigold petals have also been used to
color cheeses. Coloring may have originally been added to cheese made with winter milk from cows eating hay to match the orange hue (from vitamin A) of
cheeses made with milk from cows fed on green plants.
* A giant wheel of Cheddar cheese was given to Queen Victoria (1837-1901) for a wedding gift. It weighed over 1,000 pounds. A normal Cheddar wheel
weighs 60-75 pounds.
* Almost 90% of all cheese sold in the United States is classified as a Cheddar type cheese.
* Chevre is French for goat and refers to cheese made from goat's milk.
* Americans are eating more cheese than ever. In 2003, American s consumed 8.8 billion pounds of natural cheese. On a per capita basis, the average
American ate 30.6 pounds of natural cheese in 2003. That's four pounds more per person than in 1994 and 19.5 pounds more than in 1970. Overall, Americans
ate 1.8 billion pounds more cheese in 2003 than in 1994. Approximately half of that increase was supplied by California, the fastest-growing cheese producer.
* Americans are stuck on mozzarella. It will be no surprise to pizza lovers that the single most frequently eaten cheese is Mozzarella, which recently edged
past Cheddar in popularity. Americans ate 2.8 billion pounds of gooey Mozzarella in 2003, the majority of which came from California, the country's largest
producer. Cheddar was a close second and we ate 2.7 billion pounds of that.
* Americans purchased $40 billion worth of cheese last year. The market value of all cheese consumed in the U.S. was nearly $40 billion in 2003. In addition
to supermarket sales, this includes cheese sold through restaurants and fast food outlets, as well as the cheese sold as ingredients in frozen and packaged
* America has 440 cheesemakers.This includes more than 350 producers of specialty, artisan and farmstead cheeses. While most states have at least one
cheese plant, more than two-thirds of the specialty cheesemakers in the country are located in just three regions - California, Wisconsin and New England.
Many cheesemakers now invite visitors to stop by and sample cheese and learn more about Cheesemaking practices. For a visitor's map to California